The History of Durga Puja

According to Hindu mythology, Adi Shakti—Devi—is the Supreme power. The Devi Bhagawatam tells that Adi shakti is the original creator, observer and destroyer of the whole universe.
She is formed from (Lord Brahma),(Lord Vishnu) and (Lord Shiva).

In Shiv Puran she is incarnated in part Lord Shiva. Skanda Puran and Markandeya Puran tells about Durga or Chandi as divine mother of all creation.

In Devi Bhagwatam she is goddess Bhuvaneshvari. Owner of this universe.
She then incarnated in front of Lord Shiva in the form of Sidhidaatri. The same puran Parvati, the goddess of power and beauty,Adi Para shakti is also considered to be the truly supreme spirit.
In Devi Puran, In Vedas it is written that worship of Sun as the ultimate source of energy and Adi Shakti transform the soul in the body. She incarnated various form of Shakti from Brahma, Vishnu and Lord Shiva.

Facts on Durga Puja and Hindu Mythology

As Durga Shakti She incarnates herself to NavaDurga for all the planets in from of energy :
Sun by Kushmanda Shakti.
Mahagauri by Rahu.
Kaalratri by Shani.
Ketu by Goddess Sidhidhaatri.
Bhrasapati by Katyayini
Mangal by Brahmacharini
moon by Shailputri
Budh by Skandmata
Shukra by Chandraghanta

By this forms the divine mother controls Nava Graha. Worshipping the nine goddess in Navaratri saves us from all the planets.
Devi incarnation or forms with ten avatars of Lord Vishnu as MahaVidya
As per tantras ten goddesses are original source of ten incarnation of Lord Vishnu.
Dhumavati, Lord Mastsya was incarnated
BaglaMukhi, Lord Kurma was incarnated
Bhairavi, Lord Varaha was incarnated
Chinnamasta, Lord Narsingh was incarnated
TripurSundari, Lord Vaamna was incarnated
Matangi, Lord Parshurama was incarnated
Tara, Lord Rama was incarnated
Kali, Lord Krishna was incarnated
Kamala, Lord Buddha was incarnated
Bhuvaneshvari, Lord Kalki will be incarnated
The source is taken from Devi Bhagwatam Mahapuran.

Mahamaya destroys the illusion in a realistic formation. She save destroys evil forces of Shumbha and Nishumbha. The ultimate conclusion to be reached is that Parvati or Durga are forms of Adi shakti.

Adi Shakti incarnations :

Her first incarnation of Devi Sarawati is the Sattvik Guna and she is also Devi Ambika, she is the source of wisdom and learning. She hellped in destroying Shumbha and Nishumbha. SHe wears yellow color. Her Second incarnation is Mahalakshmi..she is Raja guna form in adi shakti..she is goddess of Wealth.She weas red. Her thord is Mahakali in Tamasik guna. She is Yogmaya and she destroyed Madhu and Kaitabha in this form.She wears blue.

Brahma creates, Vishnu preserves and Shiva destrys this is how the balance of the Universe goes on.
Post Vedi period :
In Ramayan : Goddess Durga is worshipped by Lord Rama. In Mahabharata Krishna tells durga as divine mother. Pandavas worshipped Devi Durga for her blessings.
Other cultures : In Mesopotamian age Goddess Ishtar has resemblance to Durga. She is beautiful and also worshipped by the Romans, Eghptians. She has multiple arms. This is how Devi is the ultiomate source of Shakti.

There are many thoughts on the existence , formation and creation of human being .It is believed the Supreme power created the Universe and also the Human being. It is said that God created Human in the formation of his own image.The illusion of Maya is the original power of creation . The source of power resides inside the Prakriti (Mother Nature) and is responsible for power in this world. In this way the Adi Shakti is involved. Lord Shiva symbolizes the Moksha and Lord Vishnu preserves and secures Dharma.In Vedic age Devi Aditi is the ultimate source of power .

The spiritual form of devi durga is Yogmaya and her external form is Mahamaya. The Narad Puran states many incarnations of her forms, She is Uma, Gitija, Ambika to name a few.She is beautiful in her form as Lalita, Parvati, Aparajita, Dakshyani as the daughter ofr Daksha, Gouri as the wife of Lord Shiva, Indrakshi as her her eyes are similar of Lord Indra, Jagadhatri as she holds the universe, Katayani as she was once born as the daughter of Kata, Parvati as the daughter of Himalayas. In Brahmapuran devi incarnates herself as Mahalaxshmi in Vainkuntha, Radharani in Gokul and Sarawati as she relates to Lord Brahma. She is Maya the great illusion of energy. , She plays an important part in creation of the world. The worship of the devine power dates back about 4000years old in India. It is related in the Vedic time also the worship of Devi Durga. She is the goddess of the universe and wife of Lord Sghiva with 64 different forms , each represents specific aspect. She represent Prakiti. The uniformity of creation nad destruction is endless and Shiva and Durga resembles the power of the same.
She is the power of sleep and Yoganidra in which Lord Vushnu rests. She holds the energy of the world and the creation of the Universe, she becomes fierce and terrible to demolish the evil power. She destroyed Mahisasur and became Mahisasur mardini, in the form of Kaushiki she Killed Shumbha and Nishumbha, She become Chamunda to kill Chanda and Munda and in the form of Kali she demolished Raktabeeja. In these forms she saves the lord from different evil power.